David Hume On Causality and Science

David Hume’s (1711-1776) philosophy was the culmination of the trajectory of British empiricism (see Chapters 8 and 11). Hume’s shocking conclusion was that the long quest for understanding had reached no true understanding at all. Descartes was not a true skeptic because he believed that knowledge is possible. Hume was […]

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George Berkeley: Matter Doesn’t Matter

Philosophy’s weirdest argument, but irrefutable As you are reading this, are you sitting down? On what are you sitting? A chair, probably. Of what is the chair made? Wood? Plastic? Metal? A combination? And what does science, and common sense, tell us that these things we call wood, plastic, and […]

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Calvinist America

Calvinism and the American Conception of Evil

Largely underestimated is the significant influence that John Calvin has had on culture in the United States. Perhaps only John Locke has had more philosophical influence on the American Zeitgeist than has Calvin. To understand America and its uniqueness, you need to understand Calvin’s unique ideology and how his Calvinism […]

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UFOs: What If There’s Nothing to Disclose?

Follow-up article: UFOs Are Real, but Our Thinking about Them Is Not Realistic The truth is out there, and it lies somewhere between the extremes of skepticism and believe-anythingism. That’s especially the case for the phenomena we call UFOs, or as the military now calls them, UAPs. A clear view […]

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Aristotle’s Theory of Change

(Video and text below.) How Objects Change One of the biggest problems that ancient Greek philosophers dealt with was the problem of change. Why and how do objects change? Plato had agreed with a number of Greek philosophers before him that change was an uncomfortable dilemma. Their reasoning was that […]

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Why Philosophy Is Best Taught Chronologically

How to best teaching philosophy so students can understand and appreciate its importance. One of the biggest challenges for philosophy professors is reaching students who have little to no background or interest in philosophy. In the US, philosophy is seldom taught in high school and many students see a college […]

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